Problems of the spine can occur in one or more components that form the spine: muscles, ligaments, joints, discs, vertebrae and nerves.
Each disease has a number of specific symptoms. It is very important that patient consult a doctor immediately if the following symptoms occurs:
- Reduction of muscle strength in one or more limbs.
- Sphincter dysfunction such as encopresis/enuresis or retention of defecation/ischuria
- Any neurological symptoms resulting from trauma, infection or tumor.
- Spinal injuries
- Spinal deformity
Degenerative changes of the spine are the result of the progressive deterioration of components of vertebrae. Osteoarthritis of the spine, herniated discs and ligament hypertrophy are the most important group of pathologies of the spine.
Due to various factors (mechanical overload, aging, etc.) it may occur partial destruction of the intervertebral disc and offset of the nucleus pulposus. This results in compression of the nerve root in the place of its exit from the spinal canal. Although intervertebral hernia can develop at any level of the spine, they often occur in the lumbar and cervical part of the spine. The compression of the nerve root causes pain, sensitivity disorders, and / or muscle weakness.
In case of reducing the diameter of the spinal canal, the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots may be squeezed, which is accompanied by pain and difficulty walking.
In case of spondylolisthesis of the spine one vertebra shifts forward or backward relative to other vertebrae. It is the result of degenerative processes in the spinal column and is accompanied by severe pain.
In case of degenerative scoliosis due to a combination of degenerative processes in the spine and its lateral deviation the compression of the nerve roots and probably spinal cord occurs that may be accompanied by pain.
Different types of cancer can affect the spine and be localized directly in the tissues of the spine: bone, connective tissue (primary tumor) or a secondary nidus (metastasis). Tumors can affect the vertebrae and cause compression of neural structures, or directly invade into the neural structures.
Injuries with high energy (sports, traffic injuries) can cause complete or partial damage of the spine, often accompanied by spinal cord injury. In patients with osteoporosis, pathological fractures are possible even with minor injuries.
Various congenital diseases of vertebrae also can cause back problems: infantile scoliosis (lateral deviation of the spine), congenital spondylolisthesis, spina bifida, meningocele and malformation of Arnold - Chiari.
The sooner the patients appeal to specialized care, the more effective can be the treatment.
For the precise diagnostics of the patients, they are thoroughly discussed by a multidisciplinary team of medical specialists. The multidisciplinary team of the specialists includes: vertebro-neurologists, neurosurgeons, orthopedists, reflexologist, therapist, anesthesiologists, specialists of kinesiotherapy and physiotherapy, radiologists and others.
The department carries out the treatment of all kinds of diseases and injuries of the spine:
- deformation of the spine (scoliosis, osteochondrosis)
- degenerative diseases of the spine (low back pain, herniated discs, stenosis of spinal channel , instability of the vertebrae)
- spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis of the lumbar part of the vertebrae,
- correction of the spinal curvature in ankylosing spondylitis
- malignant and benign tumors of the spine,
- fractures and dislocations of the vertebrae
- correction of post-traumatic and postoperative spinal deformities.
Generally, treatment is carried out surgically, using modern technologies and tools.
After almost all kinds of surgical intervention, patients are discharged from the hospital within 2-7 days in most cases - without additional fixation.