Multiple sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the myelin sheath of nerve fibers of the brain and spinal cord. The term multiple sclerosis used to indicate disseminated through the whole central nervous system area of sclerotic tissue that replaces the normal nerve tissue.
A feature of the disease is the simultaneous failure of several different parts of the nervous system, which leads to various neurological symptoms of the patients. Morphological basis of the disease is the formation of so-called plaques of multiple sclerosis which represents the area of destruction of myelin (demyelination) of the white substance of the brain and spinal cord.
The disease mostly occurs in young and middle age (15 - 40 years). Multiple sclerosis is common in the Armenian population. The knowledge of epidemiological characteristics of the disease contributes to its early detection.
The main cause of multiple sclerosis is the failure of the immune system in which immune cells attack the patient's own cells of the nervous system, destroying their myelin sheath. There is a site of inflammation, which is produced at the site of scar tissue that disrupts the conduction of impulses from the brain to the organs. As a result, the brain cannot effectively manage the processes and actions of the body.
Disease provocating factors may include:
- Genetic predisposition
- Severe stress
- Viral and bacterial diseases
- Serious chronic vitamin D deficiency
The first signs appear when damaged about 50% of nerve fibers. At this stage of the disease the patients had such complaints as:
- One or two-side visual impairment
- The pain and double vision
- Numbness and tingling in the fingers
- Reduce the sensitivity of the skin
- Muscle weakness
- Violation of motor coordination
Over time, as a result of increasing number of sclerotic plaques the other signs of disease also appear.
- Spasms and pain in the muscles.
- Urinary retention and constipation, over time the patient may lose the ability to control the processes of emptying the bladder and bowels.
- Changes in sexual life.
- The appearance of pathological pyramidal reflexes, which does not happen in healthy people. They can be detected only by neurologist.
- Increased fatigue when performing physical activities.
- Partial paralysis of the limbs, shortness of voluntary movements.
- Paralysis of cranial nerves: oculomotor, trigeminal, facial, hypoglossal.
- Rhythmic oscillatory movement of the eyeballs.
- Behavioral disturbances and intelect reduction.
- Neuroses, emotional instability, alternating depression and euphoria.
The disease is characterized by periods of worsening and remission, when symptoms are greatly weakened. Timely and properly chosen treatment can significantly reduce the duration of exacerbations and prolong the period of remission.
Center of Neuroimmunology and MS provides the diagnoses, treatment and follow-up of patients with multiple sclerosis. Today, about 100 patients are in outpatient dispensary observation in the center. In the diagnosis of the disease the entire arsenal of modern equipment of diagnostic clinic is used.
Highly skilled specialists of the center carried out the treatment of patients in accordance with international standards and guidelines, using the latest advances in medicine.